Static Electricity | The science behind Electricity (Article)

Have you ever thought from where the concept of electricity, the concept of flow of electron came from, it all came from the one Basic concept named static electricity, if you want to get the details of static electricity then this article is for you.


If you rub a glass rod with a Silk cloth you will find that after some time they start attracting each other. Now in earlier stage some people told that, there is some exchange of fluid taking place between those two material (glass and the silk cloth) and that exchange was actually creating the force of attraction or the repulsion (which depend upon the type of material used) between those two materials.

After sometime very clever Benjamin Franklin told that, “no, you guys are wrong. When you are rubbing these two material with each other you are actually  transferring the charge between those to material and that charge is causing the attraction between those two materials”. And those charged is nothing but our tiny little particles called Electrons.

Now we will get to the science of this.

We know that every material is made up of small building blocks called atom.  And this small atoms are made up of three different parts that is electron, proton and neutron, as shown in figure below.


  • Electrons are negatively charged.
  • protons are positively charged.
  • And the neutron does not have any kind of charge or simply you can say, they are neutral.

The proton and neutron in an atom are tightly bounded together and they form the center part of an atom. This center part is called as nucleus.  And this combination of proton and neutron determine the type of material it is.

If you could change the number of proton in the nucleus i.e if you could add or subtract the proton from the nucleus, you could also change the type of material, that means you can convert any metal into gold but of course technically this is not possible. Addition of neutron in the nucleus causes nothing because they don’t have any kind of charge. so what you have to remember here is, proton and neutron they are tightly bounded and they cannot be moved.

But the tiny little particle that is electrons, which has negative charge and has freedom and they are not tightly bonded together with each other so they could move from one position to the another in an atom.

You can even take electron from other atom and you can place it to another, it does not going to affect the atom or it is also not going to change their type of material but, it will definitely create some imbalance between that atom. Well, now the question is, how?

Its simple, lets say you have +2 with you, to make it zero or neutral what you will need? Yes right, you will need a -2 and that will make it zero or neutral.

(+2) + (-2) = 0

Now let us say,  I added plus one to your positive value and that will became positive 3 now we see what will happen

(+3) + (-2) = 1

You’re remain with extra one, that means you are not zero or you are not neutral & that extra one my friends, will create the imbalance.

If you  understood the above explanation then you have understood how  imbalance is created in an atom.

Now concentrate on the following image,  you will find that there are 6 proton and 6 electrons and which are resulting in a balance atom.

(+6) + (-6) = 0

Now if I had a one extra electron to this atom it will not remain balance anymore, because it will try to remove that extra electron to become neutral again and that will create imbalance in that atom.

(+6) + (-7) = -1

The same thing was happening when we were rubbing the glass rod with the silk cloth, rubbing of the glass rod with the Silk cloth was creating the transfer of electrons from glass to the cloth  or from cloth to the glass and that transfer of electrons was creating the imbalance between those two materials and that imbalance was actually creating the force of attraction.

And this imbalance of electrons between the atom is called as Static electricity.

why static?  because the electrons remains in the static condition until we provide them a path.

If we connect  glass rod and Silk cloth with the wire the electrons will start flowing and it will keep flowing until all the atoms get stable again.

But we have not provided any path to it so, it will remain in static condition and that is why it is called as static electricity.

Now we have reached at two very important conclusion

  • First, rubbing of the two materials creates an imbalance between the atoms,  does this imbalance is the concept of voltage?
  • second, when we connect the two imbanalnce material with the wire the electrons starts flowing and the flowing of electrons is it the concept of current?

To get the answer read the next article.

you can also watch the video on this Article,  just click the following link

static Electricity | The Science Behind Electricity | Easiest Explanation | HD

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Static Electricity | The science behind Electricity (Article)

Gaurav J
About The Author
- Electrical Engineer. Interest & Study in Electrical Engineering. Currently working with a High-Voltage Switchgear Industry.

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